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Leakage Warning System

A novel Leakage Level Warning System Using a Statistical Method

黃佑仲1、侯煜堃2、馬孟2、吳煥宗3、陳漢宗3、Ronald Garcia4、吳智光1 1弓銓企業股份有限公司,2中國河南省鄭州自來水投資控股有限公司 3國立臺南高級工業職業學校,4崑山科技大學


The effectiveness of leakage control implementation in a water supply network relies on a precise leakage level estimation.
As the water supply network expands, and the pipe network conditions varies, and the water usage pattern changes, the estimation of leakage level becomes a big challenge for many utilities. In order to obtain a better estimation of leakage in the main, especially background leakage, utilities commonly take tenth or even hundredth of samples of the flow rate during midnight within District Metering Areas (DMA). However, this estimation has a significant margin of error. One of the reasons is that the pressure cannot be kept constant during the sampling, which means that the leakage rate also varies.
In this study, the flow was monitored constantly at midnight and the data was processed using standard deviation method. In conjunction with a pressure monitoring system to estimate the relationship between leakage and pressure, or better known as N1 value. Such method revealed a more precise leakage level estimation. The N1 value was then used to estimate the 24 hours leakage level.

Keywords: leakage, minimum night flow, N1 value.

For more information about this project click the following link EMS Note that the original version of this paper was written in Mandarin (Chinese)

Peak Expiratory Flow Meter

Development of a Self-Power Peak Expiratory Flowmeter

S.Wang, Z.Gaing, R.Garcia, P.Chang, C.Chen
Kun Shan University, Tainan, Taiwan
Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung

Keywords: Self-Power, Peak Flowmeter, Respiratory, Lung Capacity, AFPM, PEF


For a regular Digital Peak Respiratory Flowmeter, a strain gauge or similar probe is used to detect the strength of the blowing. The signal is then be analyzed by computer. In this innovative self power peak repiratory flowmeter, however, a generator is used. The generator is "one stone for two birds": it serves as the digital signal generator to present the air flow data; it also provides the energy source to re-power the batteries. This allows people to use the equipment whenever and anywhere without worry of recharge or change batteries. Another advantage of the machine is its reliability. The blowing chamber is separated from the generator by magnetic (shaft-less) coupling, therefore, the moisture from blowing has no way to corrode the electric circuit or contaminate the instrument. Because of this innovative instrument is "Green", "Digital" and easy of use, the application would be expanded. The coreless permanent magnet disk generator technology (AFPM) is utilized to eliminate the cogging torque. Moreover, energy saving circuit design also implemented to make the self-power instrument a reality.

This article was published in Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vol 241-244, online since Dec 2012

Digital Water Flowmeter

Development of a Self-Rechargeable Digital Water Flowmeter

Songhao Wang, Ronald Garcia

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University
949 Da Wan Road, Young Kang City, Tainan, 710 Taiwan
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 886-937823626, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 886-985807279


The objective of this paper is to present the feasibility of a self-Rechargeable digital water flowmeter (SRDFM) system for water pipes using latest data processing and wireless communication technologies while causing negligible water pressure drop (head loss).
The system uses a Pelton turbine generator to power the electronic circuit, which process and transmit the signals generated by several flow meters. ZigBee technology was used to process and send wireless signals. Signals from two water meters were acquired, processed and transmitted with only one control/transmission unit during this study. The new system was assessed experimentally reaching a maximum of 80m of wireless transmittance distance at a minimum flow rate of 5 liters per minute for a 16mm diameter pipe, (self-charged).
Keywords: Advanced Meter Infrastructure (AMI), Automatic Meter Reading (AMR), Micro Controller Unit (MCU), Pipe Flow, Self-Rechargeable, Wireless, ZigBee, Data Acquisition Unit (DAQ).

Article published at Journal of Hydroinformatics (SCI), IWA Publishing 2013

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